The Internet of Things (English Internet of Things, IoT) is a concept for the development of Internet technologies towards automation, and the exclusion of human participation from most of the processes of the IT infrastructure.
The Internet of Things through the exchange of information between various sensors and sensors should fully automate the processes of managing groups of devices.
5G technology has even developed this concept as now we can transfer files and data more rapidly, making the whole procedure faster.
Do many people also ask Is 5G safe? But we all know that there are many advantages of the internet, especially 5G due to its fast speed.
Most often, when considering the potential of the Internet of Things, an example of the work of a smart home is given.
Indeed, in any house, there are heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and lighting systems. And it would be nice to make it all work by itself, without unnecessary human intervention.
IoT technology is associated with the unification of many intelligent objects into a single system. Recommendation Y.206 carries this view on virtual objects.
According to this recommendation, the IoT provides real-time communication between things. IoT systems are the future, and below we will look at the basic concepts of these systems, as well as some scenarios for their use.
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The architecture of IoT systems
IoT consists of a set of different info-communication technologies that make it work. The architecture of the Internet of Things shows how different technologies are interconnected and includes the following main layers:
Level of sensors and sensor networks
Here we are directly talking about devices. This is the lowest level of the IoT architecture. It consists of smart objects connected to sensors.
They provide the collection and processing of information in real-time for relevant purposes. For example, to measure temperature, pressure, driving speed, location, and more.
The development of microprocessors has led to a reduction in the physical size of hardware sensors and made it possible to implement them everywhere.
Usually, things have a connection to gateways that connect to a local or wide area network. But there are also self-contained devices that can work on the basis of networks of cellular operators (connection using Wi-Fi or Ethernet).
The gateways themselves are hubs that support a specific standard or protocol that allows communication with “Things”. To learn about the Siege of Orgrimmar Entrance, read here.
As a specific example of an IoT system without a gateway, below is an image describing the operation of a GPS tracker with an NB-IoT module:
Thus, there are devices that do not need a gateway, and they have a standard communication interface. They are self-sufficient and to coordinate with the cloud they have enough Internet access via wire, GSM / 3G / LTE, NB-IoT, Wi-Fi, etc.
In the example with the tracker in the figure above, the operator assigns an IP address to the device (or non-IP technology can be used) via NB-IoT (L1, L2) and releases the device to the Internet.
The tracker itself can support MQTT, CoAP, or simply send its payload in UDP packets to the platform address specified in the settings via the public network.
Sensors that are characterized by low power consumption and low data rates form wireless sensor networks (WSN – Wireless Sensor Network).
They are gaining in popularity because they can contain many more battery-enabled sensors and cover large areas.
This is achieved by applying a mesh network topology. An example is the ZigBee standard (IEEE 802.15.4), which is increasingly used in home automation systems using the “Smart Home” method.